Nephrotoxicity is a common side effect of chemotherapy treatment. Traditional blood and urine markers for diagnosis of nephrotoxicity are insensitive and non-specific. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) as a sensitive biomarker for early kidney injury in chemotherapy treated cancer patients. This study included fifteen female breast cancer patients treated with adrimycin (ADR) and cyclophosphamide (CP). Urinary markers such as KIM-1 and microalbuminuria (MALB) were measured. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), serum levels of creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malonaldehyde (MDA) and electrolytes were analyzed. All markers were detected before and after 24h of treatment. A significant increase in MALB (P < 0.001) and KIM-1 (P < 0.000) levels were observed after chemotherapy treatment while no significant differences in the mean value of GFR, SCr, BUN, and electrolytes levels were found. The activities of SOD and CAT showed significant decrease (P < 0.001) while significant increase of MDA (P <0.001) levels were detected. In conclusion, quantitation of urinary KIM-1 is likely to be a sensitive biomarker for the evaluation of early kidney injury.