Archive \ Volume.10 2019 Issue 6

Occupational Radiation Dose for Medical Workers in Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine in Makkah Hospitals‎‎‎

Hani A. Alhazmi , Adel S. Alsirwani , Meteb N. Aldaadi , Faisal A. Alharthy , Mohammed A. Tashkandi , Esam A. Jahri
Abstract

Background: Radiation exposure poses hazards for health-care suppliers and patients in health-care facilities (HCFs). Photography imaging is very valuable as a diagnostic tool, however, radiation and computed axial tomography (CT) scans carry well-known potential risks. Personnel and radiation safety observation is a very important safety precaution within apply of radiography, in drugs, research, education, industry, and agriculture field. The mixture of improved health services related to the aging population has resulted in increased use of radionuclides and radiation in designation and treatment.One of the hazards of working in a department of nuclear medicine (NM) or diagnostic radiology (DR) is the possibility of long-term exposure to low-level radiation and any associated biological effects. Evidence of reversible and irreversible genotoxic effects during periods of radiation exposure has been reported The massive variation in exposure among employees operating with radiation in departments of NM and DR has been attributed to the character of the work the individual carries out.The as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle, which emphasizes utilizing techniques and procedures to keep exposure to a level as low as reasonably achievable, should be followed to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to medical professionals. Personnel shielding options (e.g., two-piece wraparound aprons, thyroid shields, and eye protection) should be used to effectively attenuate scattered x-ray levels. From the basic safety standards (BSS) recommendation the equivalent doses limits ought to apply, i) to the full-body, as drawn by the operational amount power unit; and ii) to the extremities via the operational amount power unit (0.07). The researchers calculable that the cancer risk incidence directly will increase with the absorbed dose. it's vital, for this low radiation dose to determine a model to determine the malignant neoplastic disease effects for that dose . the target of the Radiological  is to produce a system and helpful standards for radiation protection as well as medical, activity, environmental, and exposure through tomography accidents while not unduly limiting the helpful practices giving rise to radiation exposure .Aim of the study: to assess, analyze and discuss the occupational exposure and safety protection radiation doses for medical workers from two departments of  (NM) and  (DR) in Makkah hospital during 2017 and 2018 to compare the mean doses received with the limit of 20 mSv/year of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) .Method: The radiation exposure of each staff member working in departments of NM and DR is routinely monitored using thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD). Generally, 2 dose quantities, i.e. Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07), are reported for each staff member . Results: the majority of participant from MAK, AL Noor . H department were constitutes (48.1%) In the Distribution of the annual average Hp(10) andHp(0.07)were calculated for each group .is no significant relation between Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) in the Sum 2018 where T= 0.993 and p-value 0.322.  Distribution of the change in 2017 and 2018 in Dosimeter Use of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07)  and data , paired of T-test were calculated for each group is a significant relation between Hp(10) in the Sum 2017 and Sum 2018 were difference increase  from 2017 to 2018 T= 9.500 and p-value <0.001Conclusion:The annual dose Hp(10) were well below the international recommended dose limit of the ICRP.  Another attention-grabbing conclusion is that the low level of overall data of radio graphical procedures among the nursing employees. Further studies should be conducted to highlight different aspects of radiation exposure dose and safety protection tools‎‎‎‎.