Pharmaceutical wastes include a wide range of antibiotics, painkillers, and cancer drugs that cause environmental pollution and disrupt the natural functioning of ecosystems. In this review study, the effects of pharmaceutical waste on the environment and human health were investigated. The results obtained from the review of various studies showed that pharmaceutical waste has environmental risks and destructive effects. The review of various studies showed the negative effects of pharmaceutical waste on human health, including mortality, the prevalence of respiratory and lung diseases, cancer, and negative effects on the soil of agricultural products and water. Research evidence showed the harmful environmental effects of pharmaceutical waste on surface and underground water, soil plants, and agricultural and aquatic products, serious damage to people's health, respiratory diseases, cancer, neurological disorders, and transmission to food chains. However, this evidence requires a more detailed and comprehensive evaluation so that the results can be interpreted more confidently.