Globally, liver injuries are a serious public health problem for people. Recent investigations have demonstrated that plants and their important active ingredients exert protective effects against toxic agents that may cause liver injuries, such as pollutants, drugs, and alcohol, which consequently develop into the liver failure, cirrhosis, fibrosis, hepatitis, fatty liver, and even carcinoma. Several natural products and their bioactive compounds are protective against liver injuries. The underlying mechanisms mainly include lipid metabolism regulation, DNA damage repair, anti-necrosis, anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation. In this review, the protective effects and especially mechanism of action of natural products and bioactive components on liver damages caused by chemicals has been summarized. This current information will aid in the prevention and treatment of liver-related diseases, especially those induced by chemicals.