Background: Scoliosis is a deformity of the spine and trunk where the three-dimensions of the bones alignment are altered. This deformity can affect people of all ages, children, and adults, but the adolescent is the most commonly affected. Idiopathic scoliosis affects between 0.47 and up to 5.2% of the general population. Also, females are more affected by this condition with a 1.4 to 1 ratio when compared to males in mild severity scoliosis. Objectives: We aimed to review the literature reviewing the pathophysiology of scoliosis, clinical features, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of this disease. Methodology: PubMed database was used for articles selection, papers were obtained and reviewed. Conclusion: Scoliosis is one of the main spinal deformities seen in the general population, which may be primary or reflect underlying pathology. Thus, a physician’s clinical suspicion, good history taking, and physical examination skills are paramount to help in diagnosing this deformity. The importance of early diagnosis and management is immeasurable since multiple treatment options are available and long term complications can be avoided. Nevertheless, a new basis for treatment based on new braces types and new surgical techniques are being developed and studied heavily which may provide more personalized therapy for these patients.