Pharmacophore an International Research Journal
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Open Access | Published: 2023 - Issue 1


Ashna Yuvaraj1, R Priyadharshini1*, Rajesh Kumar2, Palati Sinduja1


  1. Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai 77, Tamilnadu, India.
  2. Nanobiomedicine Lab, Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai-77, Tamil Nadu, India.


Pterocarpus santalinus is valued for its strong, dark-purple, bitter heartwood. The gentle aroma of P. santalinus heartwood is caused by the presence of terpenoids, which gives it its color and fragrance. P. santalinus heartwood dye is used as a light microscopy stain, and as a coloring agent in pharmaceutical preparations. The Antibacterial, antimicrobial, and UV-blocking capabilities of ZnO NPs are outstanding compared with other metal oxides. The study aims to analyze the antiinflammatory and antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles using red sandalwood extract. A plant extract sample was taken and 100ml of distilled water was added. Heated at 50°C for 5-10 minutes. The heated solution was filtered. .0.861g of zinc oxide was measured and dissolved in 70 ml of distilled water. The mixture was transferred to extract the sample. The solution was heated and labeled. The heating mantle was used with a temperature of 50-60°C and the time took was 6-8 minutes. The results obtained were statistically analyzed using spearman correlation analysis and using SPSS software. The sample shows an increasing absorbance rate and increases in the zone of inhibition with the increase in the concentration of the extract. It also showed an effective antifungal activity against C.albicans. The correlation analysis is statistically significant with p value<0.05. From the present study, it is concluded that red sandal-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles possess anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity. 

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, Anti-fungal, Innovative technique, Pterocarpus santalinus, Red sandalwood, Zinc oxide nanoparticle


Natural herbal extracts of red sandalwood, botanical name Pterocarpus santalinus, have been used in therapeutics for centuries and are considered to have anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic effects [1, 2]. In English, Pterocarpus santalinus L. f. (Fabaceae) is known as red sandalwood, but it also goes by other names in other languages. Pterocarpus is derived from the Greek words pteron (wing) and karpos (fruit), referring to the winged pod, while santalinus is derived from the Latin words sandal and inus (meaning similar to), referring to a plant that has characteristics similar to Indian sandalwood, Santalum album L [3, 4].

P. santalinus (also known as African or Nepalese sandalwood and Indian sandalwood) is valued for its strong, dark-purple, bitter heartwood. The active components of Red Sandalwood, such as anthocyanins, saponins, tannins, isoflavonoids, terpenoids, and associated phenolic compounds, beta-sitosterol, and lupeol, are considered to be multifunctional in the treatment of various diseases [5-7]. The gentle aroma of P. santalinus heartwood is caused by the presence of terpenoids, which gives it its color and fragrance. P. santalinus heartwood dye is used as a light microscopy stain, and a coloring agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and the food, leather, and textile industries [7-10]. Many studies have taken place using red sandalwood-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles. Various activities such as anti-diabetic, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, and anti-cancer activities have been done by many authors. The previous studies have faced challenges mainly in the method that has been adopted to synthesize the nanoparticles. The chemical method of synthesis has its disadvantages such as the distribution of the size and control of the deposit parameters but it's also a widely used technique as it is very cost-efficient, requires no chemical purification, and large-scale production of the nanoparticle can be achieved through this method [11, 12].

Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPS), one of the most common metal oxide nanoparticles, are widely used in a variety of fields [13-16]. ZnO NPs were first used in the rubber industry to provide wear resistance to rubber composites, increase the durability and strength of high polymers, and provide anti-aging properties, among other things. ZnO is increasingly used in personal care products, such as cosmetics and sunscreen, due to its good UV absorption properties [17]. ZnO NPs also have outstanding antibacterial, antimicrobial, and UV-blocking properties. Zinc is commonly recognized as an important trace element that can be found in all body tissues, including the brain, muscle, bone, and skin [18-20].

Zinc participates in the body's metabolism and plays important roles in protein and nucleic acid synthesis, hematopoiesis, and neurogenesis as the key component of various enzyme systems. Because of the small particle size of Nano-ZnO, zinc is more readily absorbed by the body [21]. As a result, nano-ZnO is widely used in food. Furthermore, the US Food and Drug Administration has listed ZnO as a “GRAS’ (generally accepted as safe) substance (FDA) [22, 23]. ZnO NPs have gotten a lot of attention in biomedical applications because of these properties. ZnO NPs, which are relatively inexpensive and less toxic than other metal oxide NPs, have a wide variety of biomedical uses, including anticancer, drug delivery, antibacterial, and diabetes treatment; anti-inflammation; wound healing; and bioimaging [24-27].

This study aims to determine the anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity of red sandalwood-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Materials and Methods

Preparation of Plant Extract 

Plant samples such as Pterocarpus santalinus were extracted from fresh or dried plant material. There was no bias and a random sampling method was adopted. Since the plant extract was already available in powdered form, the extract was directly prepared. 100ml of distilled water was taken in a measuring cylinder 1.008g of Pterocarpus santalinus was measured and taken using a weighing machine. (Figure 1) Then, the weighted powder is mixed with the distilled water that is taken in a conical flask. The solution is labeled and heated by using a machine called the heating mantle. The temperature of the heating mantle was set to about 50°C and the time is taken to heat is about 5-10 minutes. The heating solution is taken out of the heating mantle when there is an appearance of small bubbles. After the heating process, the heated solution is filtered using filter paper (Figure 2).