Cognitive impairments (CI) are the first clinical manifestations of the nervous system in certain diseases. In recent years, the perception of cognitive impairment has changed significantly. Previously, it was associated with the elderly and senile age, but now it is also relevant for people of young and middle age, which is a social and economic problem that arouses interest among doctors of various specialties. It is proved that arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are important predictors of the CI development and dementia, which, according to some authors, have a chance to become the main «epidemic» of the XXI century. According to the Russian Cardiology Society, the number of people suffering from AH will increase by 15-25% to more than 1.5 billion by 2025. And according to forecasts of the International Diabetes Federation, the total number of patients with diabetes will exceed 552 million by 2030, and to 642 million by 2045. That is why the article considers these somatic pathologies as the most important interdisciplinary medical and social health problems. However, despite the long existence of such terms as «hypertensive and diabetic encephalopathy», this topic has not been studied enough, which also determines its relevance.