Pharmacophore an International Research Journal
Pharmacophore
Submit Manuscript
Open Access | Published: 2022 - Issue 4

INTERVENTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR IMPROVING MALE FERTILITY

Kanan Gamanlal Gamit1*, Manan Arunkumar Raval1, Niraj Yashvantrai Vyas1

 

  1. Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Gujarat, India.

ABSTRACT

Sexuality is a complex interplay of multiple facets, including anatomical, physiological, psychological, developmental, cultural, and relational factors. This complex process might be divided into four phases, namely desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution. Male infertility is a major problem worldwide which is defined as the inability of sexually active, non-contraceptive couples to have offspring in a year. Many factors affect the quality of semen including environmental, nutritional, and “lifestyle-related reasons. Male infertility problems may be contributory to 30 to 40 percent of infertile couples. There are many qualitative and quantitative parameters to check infertility in men which are quality of semen, number of sperm per ml of semen, sperm motility, abnormalities in sperm morphology, etc. Many plants are scientifically studied for their effect on male sexual dysfunction. Evidence showed that plants investigated on male infertility uplift the level of testosterone. The studies made it clear that testosterone plays an important role in sexual interest and associated sexual arousal.

Keywords: Infertility, Testosterone, Medicinal plants, Leydig cell


Introduction

The inability of a sexually active, non-contraceptive couple to become pregnant within a year is known as infertility [1]. According to a review by Agrawal et al., the percentage of infertile men ranged from 2.5% to 12%, and the distribution of infertility caused by male factors ranged from 20% to 70%. The highest rates of infertility were found in Central/Eastern Europe and Africa [2].

A problem with the seminal fluid or the quantity and morphology of sperm could be the cause of male infertility. Men are deemed infertile when their sperm concentration falls below 20 million/mL [3]. According to WHO reports, there are 60-80 million infertile couples worldwide [1].

Around the world, 8–12% of couples experience infertility, with regional differences [4]. About 10% of American couples are classified as infertile if they are unable to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual activity [5, 6]. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the total number of women with impaired fecundity increased by about 2.7 million between 1982 and 2002, from 4.56 million to 7.26 million, before slightly declining to 6.71 million between 2006 and 2010 [7]. In 2015, there were 22.3 teenagers born per 1,000 females, an 8% decrease from the previous year [8]. Prevalene of male sexual dysfunction in Asia is shown in Table 1.

The persistent inability to obtain and maintain an erection strong enough to allow for satisfactory sexual performance is known as erectile dysfunction (ED) [9]. Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that is characterized by ejaculation that always, or nearly always, occurs before or within a minute of vaginal penetration, according to the International Society of Sexual Medicine [10]. As a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with getting older and characterized by sexual dysfunction and other typical symptoms as well as a lack of serum testosterone levels, hypogonadism is the clinical and biochemical entity formerly known as andropause, androgen deficiency in the aging male, and partial androgen deficiency in the aging male [11].

Table 1. Prevalence of male sexual dysfunction in Asia [12]

Prevalence (%)

Country

Erectile

dysfunction

Premature

ejaculation

Hypogonadism

Malaysia

26.8-69

22.3

18.5

Mainland China

38.3

19.5

-

Korea

32.2

27.5

-

Taiwan, China

9-17.7

13

24.1

Thailand

37.5

23

-

Singapore

51.3-73

12

-

Hong Kong, China

63.6

29.7

9.52

Although there are many treatments available, including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal prostaglandin E1, medicated urethral systems for erection, vacuum devices, and penile prostheses for erectile dysfunction; testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism; psychological and behavioral therapy, local anesthetic creams, tramadol, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used for premature ejaculation [12]. The use of numerous plants and Ayurvedic formulas as aphrodisiacs is documented in ancient literature.

Meiosis, spermatogenesis, and mitotic cell division all play a part in the intricate process known as spermatogenesis. Both endocrine and paracrine mechanisms are involved in regulating spermatogenesis. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), the latter acting through the intermediary of testosterone, which is produced by the Leydig cells in the testis, are both involved in the endocrine stimulation of spermatogenesis [13].

The keywords, male infertility, clinical evaluation, and medicinal plants were searched on PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Google Scholar. Around 250 articles were reviewed on the effect of medicinal plants on male infertility. Those articles which showed no or less effect of medicinal plants on infertility were excluded. Preclinical and clinical studies on effects of plants on male infertility are mentioned in Table 2 and Table 3 respectively.

Table 2. Preclinical studies on effects of medicinal plants on male infertility

Name of the plant

Part of the plant

Animal/

Cell used

Dose level

Efficacy

Mechanism

Ref

Pedalium murex

Ethanolic extract of the fruits

Albino rats

50,100 and 150 mg/kg

Increased and improved sexual performance,

increased levels of serum testosterone

Nitric oxide release

[14]

Pedalium murex

Petroleum ether extract of a plant

Albino rats

200 and 400 mg/kg

Higher increment of mating performance,

increased pregnancy rate, increased levels of testosterone by antioxidants

Viable sperm of the male rats, protection of germ and Sertoli cells

[15]

Citrullus lanatus

Methanolic extract of the rind of the fruit

Albino rats

200 mg/kg

Improvement in all the semen parameters, sperm count; increase in FSH, LH, and testosterone

High phenolic flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents act as anti-oxidants; ascorbic acid enhances testosterone synthesis and release of FSH and LH

[16]

Amaranthus spinosus

Methanolic extract of stem

Albino rats

250 and 500 mg/kg

Increase in the sperm count, increase in serum and testicular testosterone; the weight of testis,

-

[17]

Dactylorhiza hatagirea

Lyophilized aqueous extract of roots

Albino rats

200 mg/kg

Increased sexual behavior, penile erection index

Involvement of nitrous oxide (NO)

[18]

Lecaniodiscus cupanioides

Aqueous extract of roots

Wistar

25, 50, and 100 mg/kg

Increased sexual behavior, increased levels of testosterone, LH, FSH

Reduce the synaptic concentration of serotonin as well as increase the amount of dopamine release

[19]

Fadogia agrestis

Aqueous extract of stem

Albino rats

18, 50 and 100 mg/kg

Increased sexual behavior, testosterone,

Because it increases androgen, saponin, a plant component, enhances the aphrodisiac effects.

[20]

Piper guineense

Aqueous extract of dry fruits

Sprague Dawley

200 mg/kg

Increase in testicular weight, testosterone; normal parameter of semen analysis

Zinc is a co- essential factor for the endogenous production of testosterone by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone

[21]

Garcinia kola

Ethanolic extract of seeds

Wistar rats

200 and 400 mg/kg

Increased pre-coital sexual behavior; increase in weight of testis, testosterone,

factors that increase gonadotropins or locally through an increase in Leydig cells' number or their sensitivity to LH

[22]

Fumaria parviflora

Ethanolic extract of leaves

Wistar rats

100, 200 and 400 mg/kg

Increases in the testis and epididymis weight; seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height were higher; increase

in sperm density; No significant differences

in serum FSH and LH; increase in testosterone

Increased androgen biosynthesis, improvement of testicular oxidative status by its extract components

[23]

Nigella sativa

Ethanolic extract of seeds

Wistar rats

200 and 400 mg/kg

No effect on the sperm motility and viability; increase in sperm count, testosterone, LH, fertility index

Increase in LH hormone concentration; LH stimulates the production of

testosterone in Leydig cells, which stimulates spermatogenesis via testosterone, Thymoquinone

[24]

 

Seed

oil

Rabbits

5 ml/kg

The higher number of spermatozoa, an increase in testosterone,

Thymoquinone as antioxidant

[25]

Cardiospermum halicacabum L

Aqueous extract of leaves

Wistar rats

100 and 200 mg/kg

No significant change in reproductive organ weight; a significant increase in total sperm count, motile sperm, testosterone

An increase in serum testosterone levels, antioxidant activity brought on by flavonoids, and an increase in plasma levels of testosterone that may be caused by plant saponin components

[26]

Basella alba

Methanolic extract of leaves

Leydig cells

10 and 100 µg/ml

Stimulates testosterone, estradiol, mRNA levels of aromatase,

Regulation of protein kinases and cAMP

[27]

Basella alba

and Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich

Aqueous extract of both fresh and dried leaves

Albino rats

720 mg/kg (Fresh leaves extract), 108 mg/kg (Dry leaves extract)

An abundance of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubule, an increase in testosterone level,

Induction of synthesis of testosterone by the Leydig cells

[28]

Carpolobia alba

Aqueous extract of roots

Sprague-Dawley

0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg

Increase the level of testosterone in vivo and in vitro

-

[29]

Anacyclus pyrethrum

Alcoholic extract of roots

Albino rats

50,100 and 150 mg/kg

Increase sperm count, motility, serum FSH, LH, and testosterone

Stimulation of the hypothalamus-adenohypophysis- gonad axis

[30]

Jurenia dolomiaea

Methanolic extract of the root

Sprague–Dawley

200 and 400 mg/kg

Increase the level of testosterone; density of germinal cells and sperms in the seminiferous tubules

Pituitary LH release may be caused by saponins, whereas the synthesis of androgens may be mediated by flavonoids.

[31]

Urtica dioica

Hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves

BALB/c male mice

10, 20, and 50 mg/kg

Increase in weight of testis, sperm motility, sperm count, testosterone; normal sperm morphology

Enhancing the anti-oxidant defense, inhibition of cannabinoids’ activity

[32]

Allium sativum

Aqueous extracts of bulb

Sprague-Dawley

 

200 mg/ kg

Increase in testicular weight, Serum testosterone

According to reports, selenium and zinc regulate testicular activities, particularly the production of steroidogenic enzymes.

[33]

Eruca sativa

Aqueous extract of leaves

Albino mice

30 and 40 mg/kg

Increase in testosterone, a significant decrease in sperm mortality and abnormalities, a significant increase in diameter of seminiferous tubules and spermatid

Encourage the development of the testes and improve spermatozoa proliferation, maturation, and differentiation

[34]

Ashwagandhadi Lehya (Withania somnifera)

Ayurvedic formulation Ashwagandhadi lehya

Wistar rats

250, 500, 750 mg/kg Ashwagandhadi Lehya, 250 mg/kg Withania somnifera

The increased serum concentration of testosterone and cholesterol; spermatozoa, the diameter of seminiferous tubules

Nitric oxide synthesis

[35]

Hygrophila spinosa T. Ander

Unsaponifiable fraction of seeds

Wistar rats

100, 200 and 300 mg/kg

Increased concentration of testosterone, sperm counts; increased diameter of seminiferous tubules, high numbers of spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules

Through interaction with Leydig cells, a fraction could elevate serum testosterone levels in animals receiving treatment.

[36]

Argyreia speciosa

Alkaloidal fraction of root

Leydig cell

10, 100, and 1000 μg/ml

Increased concentration of testosterone.

Synthesis of testosterone.

[37]

Phyllanthus amarus

Methanolic extracts from the leaves

Guinea pigs

100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg

Increases in the level of testosterone but has little or no effect on the levels of FSH and LH

Increase in the level of testosterone

can lead to an increase in the

spermatozoa

[38]

Aqueous and methanolic extract of leaves and stem

Albino rats

200 and 400 mg/kg

An increase in Testosterone levels increased Sperm concentration

Stimulation of the sex organs

[39]

Table 3. Clinical studies on medicinal plants which improve fertility

Plant’s name

Patients &

methods

Period of treatment

Efficacy

Findings

Ref

Zingiber officinale

75

infertile men

3 months

Increase in sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability, normal sperm morphology; increase in ejaculate volume; increases in serum FSH, LH & testosterone

Increase the α-glycosidase enzyme in the epididymis, and fructose sugar in seminal vesicle

[40]

Mucuna

pruriens

150 men

3 months

Infertile men's levels of testosterone, LH, dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline significantly improved

Dopamine-mediated CNS action and adrenaline- and noradrenaline-mediated action on the reproductive tract

[41]

Withania somnifera

75

3 months

increased serum levels of testosterone and LH, decreased levels of FSH and prolactin, and improved sperm motility and count.

Choline, beta-sitosterol, withanolides I–VII, withaferin A, and sitoindo-sides VII–X may all play a role in the various effects of W. somnifera on semen properties.

[42]

46(n=21)

90 days

Increase in sperm count, semen volume, motility; increase in serum testosterone, LH

Higher levels of testosterone;

[43]

50

90 days

Increase in serum testosterone, sperm concentration, % motile sperm

Improved serum testosterone; testicular synthesis of peptides, which had effects on sperm motility

[44]

Nigella sativa L.

80(n=40)

2 months

Significant improvement in sperm count, motility and morphology and semen volume, pH, and round cells

Antioxidant properties of N. sativa oil

[45]

Alpinia officinarum

76 (n=31)

3 months

An increase in sperm count, the total number of spermatozoa with normal morphology,

Antioxidant and scavenging activity against the ROS via its phytochemical mainly including galangin

[46]

Sesame

25

3 months

Significant improvement in the sperm count and motility

Antioxidant

[47]

Crocus sativus L

20

10 days

Significant improvement in tip rigidity and tip tumescence; higher ILEF-15 score; increased number and duration of erectile events

Antioxidant

[48]

Panax ginseng

119

8 weeks

Higher ILEF-15 PEDT score

Vas deferens and seminal vesicles' increased NO synthesis, decreased sympathetic tone, and smooth muscle dilation

[49]

Tribulus terrestri and Ecklonia bicyclis

84

30 days

Improved ILEF-15 score; increase in testosterone

Activate the pathways of NO; ACE inhibitory activity

[50]

Spermatogenesis is a process by which spermatozoa (sperms) are formed in spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubule in the testes. The formation of spermatozoa from a single cell to the entire sperm takes seventy-four days to complete the process. At the age of fourteen years, the spermatogenesis process starts in males [51]. Various hormones are responsible for the process of spermatogenesis directly or indirectly. Numerous hormones that act directly or indirectly on spermatogenesis.

The hypothalamic neurosecretory cells secrete more gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which in turn stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete more luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

FSH is the hormone that triggers the beginning of spermatogenesis. FSH binds to Sertoli cells and spermatogonia and influences the growth of spermatogonia. Furthermore, FSH stimulates Sertoli cells' production and secretion of Androgen Binding Protein (ABP). The testosterone concentration in seminiferous tubules stays high because secreted ABP binds to testosterone. Testosterone is the hormone that stimulates the final step in the process of spermatogenesis. Sertoli cells release the hormone inhibin, after the process of spermatogenesis is over.

Testosterone

The male organ known as the testes produces testosterone, a steroidal hormone, from cholesterol. It is in charge of preserving spermatogenesis. Through the negative feedback mechanism of testosterone, hypothalamic neurosecretory cells suppress GnRH secretion. The key hormone for the development of the accessory sex organs, including the penis and scrotum, is testosterone (genital duct, seminal vesicle, and prostate gland). Due to testosterone, males develop a more masculine body, larger sex organs, longer bones, wider shoulders, longer pelvises, thicker skin, more evenly distributed hair, and a deeper voice.

 Luteinizing Hormone

The Cholesterol Side Chain Cleavage (CSCC) reaction, which increases the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, is triggered when a receptor on a particular membrane on the surface of a Leydig cell binds to LH. This reaction increases cyclic AMP and calcium ions (Ca2+), protein kinase activation, phosphorylation, and protein synthesis. The cholesterol side chain cleavage (CSCC) reaction, which takes place in the mitochondria and is catalyzed by an enzyme complex, is typically regarded as the rate-limiting step in the steroid synthesis process. In Leydig cells, pregnenolone leaks from the mitochondria and is converted to a number of other steroids, including testosterone as the main end product.

Growth Hormone

For general metabolic processes in testis, growth hormone is necessary. It is also essential for the proliferation of spermatogonia.

Inhibin

Upon stimulating FSH, the Sertoli cell releases inhibin. A peptide hormone by the name of inhibin, inhibin inhibits the release of FSH through a feedback mechanism and, as a result, is crucial for spermatogenesis. There is an increase in inhibin secretion at the same time that the rate of spermatogenesis increases. A slower rate of spermatogenesis is caused by Inhibin's action on the anterior pituitary, which inhibits the release of FSH [52].

Results and Discussion

Sexual dysfunction is a major health issue nowadays. It is mostly affected by lifestyle, stress, and environmental factor or it may be genetic. This review main emphases on natural compounds with Aphrodisiac potential. Medicinal plants, extract/fraction, active constituents, or chemical moiety which enhances sexual drive or pleasure are termed Aphrodisiac. These compounds improve sexual dysfunction and behaviors. This review indicates the effectiveness of medicinal plants at the hormonal level and molecular level which improve sexual dysfunction like Pedalium murex, Citrullus lanatus, Amaranthus spinosus, Piper, guineense, etc. Furthermore, many Ayurvedic formulations have been investigated for their aphrodisiac potential. Many medicinal plants including Withania somnifera, Mucuna pruriens, Tribulus terrestris, and Panax ginseng proved their spermatogenic potential clinically.

According to the review, antioxidant effects are linked to the positive effects of medicinal plants on male reproductive function, which confirmed the ability of phytoconstituents to treat male infertility due to their presence.

The desire for sex, erection, mounting frequency, and ejaculatory frequency have all been treated with Ayurvedic formulations and medicinal plants. The accomplishment of cellular events is established by these features of male reproductive function.

In vivo studies on mammals typically last from a few days to several months, according to the review that has been presented. Additionally, the dosage of the medication varies, which may be brought on by the presence of phytoconstituents in a particular extract. Additionally, many medicinal plants continue to exist unexplored and are used by professionals in the trade. Therefore, substantiating claims about medicinal plants and defining their typical use is a huge challenge for researchers.

Conclusion

Herbal and Ayurvedic products are widely used in developing countries for the treatment of male infertility. Plants or products which have been clinically evaluated for treatment should be advised to treat the male infertility problem. Plants that are evaluated in vivo or in vitro for their claimed action should be encouraged for complete clinical evaluation of potential effects in the treatment of male infertility disorder. Also, the physicians treating male infertility must know those plants which are scientifically investigated and should combine traditional therapy with the modern one.

Acknowledgments: Authors are thankful to Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy and CHARUSAT for providing necessary facilities.

Conflict of interest: None

Financial support: None

Ethics statement: None

References

1.        WHO. WHO manual for the standardized investigation and diagnosis of the infertile couple. 2000.

2.        Agarwal A, Mulgund A, Hamada A, Chyatte MR. A unique view on male infertility around the globe. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015;13(1):1-9.

3.        Shah KM, Gamit KG, Raval MA, Vyas NY. Male infertility: A scoping review of prevalence, causes, and treatments. Asian Pacific J Reprod J. 2021;10(5):195-202.

4.        Sciarra J. Infertility: An international health problem. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1994;46(2):155-63.

5.        Stephen EH, Chandra A. Updated projections of infertility in the United States: 1995- 2025. Fertil Steril. 2000;70(1):30-4.

6.        Stephen EH, Chandra A. Declining estimates of infertility in the United States: 1982 – 2002. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(3):516-23.

7.        Chandra A, Copen CE, Stephen EH. Infertility and impaired fecundity in the United States, 1982-2010: Data from the national survey of family growth. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics; 2013. 1-22 p.

8.        Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Osterman MJK, Driscoll AK. Births: Final Data for 2015. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2017;66(1):1-70.

9.        Hatzimouratidis K, Amar E, Eardley I, Giuliano F, Montorsi DH, Yoram Vardi, et al. Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. Eur Urol. 2010;57(5):804-14.

10.     Mcmahon CG, Althof SE, Waldinger MD, Porst H, Dean J, Sharlip ID, et al. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: Report of the international society for sexual medicine (ISSM) Ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation. J Sex Med. 2008;5(7):1590-606.

11.     Nieschlag E, Swerdloff R, Behre HM, Gooren LJ, Kaufman JM, Legros JJ, et al. Investigation, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism in males. Aging Male. 2005;8(2):56-8.

12.     Ho CCK, Singam P, Hong GE, Zainuddin Z. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia. Asian J Androl. 2011;13(4):537-42.

13.     De Kretser DM, Loveland KL, Meinhardt A, Simorangkir D, Wreford N. Spermatogenesis. Hum Reprod. 1998;13(suppl_1):1-8.

14.     Sharma V, Thakur M, Dixit VK. A comparative study of ethanolic extracts of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits and sildenafil citrate on sexual behaviors and serum testosterone level in male rats during and after treatment. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143(1):201-6. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.024

15.     Balamurugan G, Muralidharan P, Polapala S. Aphrodisiac activity and curative effects of Pedalium murex (L.) against ethanol-induced infertility in male rats. Turkish J Biol. 2010;34(2):153-63.

16.     Kolawole T. Ameliorative Effects of the Methanolic Extract of the Rind of Citrullus lanatus on Lead Acetate Induced Toxicity on Semen Parameters and Reproductive Hormones of Male Albino Wistar Rats. European J Med Plants. 2014;4(9):1125-37.

17.     Sangameswaran B, Jayakar B. Anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic and spermatogenic effects of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Nat Med. 2008;62(1):79-82.

18.     Thakur M, Dixit VK. Aphrodisiac activity of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo in male albino rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007;4(S1):29-31.

19.     Ajiboye TO, Nurudeen QO, Yakubu MT. Aphrodisiac effect of aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides in sexually impaired rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2014;25(2):241-8.

20.     Yakubu MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji AT. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats. Asian J Androl. 2005;7(4):399-404.

21.     Memudu A, Akinrinade I, Ogundele O, Dare B. Effects of Crude Extract of Dry Fruits of Piper guineense on Male Fertility Parameters of Adult Sprague Dawley Rats. European J Med Plants. 2015;5(3):297-303.

22.     Ralebona N, Sewani-Rusike CR, Nkeh-Chungag BN. Effects of ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola on sexual behaviour and sperm parameters in male Wistar rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;6(14):1077-82.

23.     Dorostghoal M, Seyyednejad SM, Khajehpour L, Jabari A. Effects of Fumaria parviflora leaves extract on reproductive parameters in adult male rats. Iran J Reprod Med. 2013;11(11):891-8.

24.     Umar Z, Qureshi AS, Rehan S, Ijaz M, Faisal T, Umar S. Effects of oral administration of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil on histomorphometric dynamics of testes and testosterone profile in rabbits. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017;30(2):531-6.

25.     Parandin R, Yousofvand N, Ghorbani R. The enhancing effects of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on fertility potential, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone in male rats. Iran J Reprod Med. 2012;10(4):355-62.

26.     Peiris LDC, Dhanushka MAT, Jayathilake TAHDG. Evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (L.) on fertility of male rats. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015.

27.     Nantia EA, Travert C, Manfo FPT, Carreau S, Monsees TK, Moundipa PF. Effects of the methanol extract of Basella alba L (Basellaceae) on steroid production in Leydig cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(1):376-84.

28.     Moundipa FP, Kamtchouing P, Koueta N, Tantchou J, Foyang NPR, Mbiapo FT. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;65(2):133-9.

29.     Manfo FPT, Nantia EA, Tchana AN, Monsees TK, Moundipa PF. Evaluation of the effect of carpolobia alba (Polygalaceae) aqueous extract on male reproductive function in rats. J Appl Anim Res. 2011;39(1):80-4.

30.     Shahraki MR, Dehvari J, Shahrakipoor M, Shahreki E, Sharaki AR, Dashipour AR. The effects of anacyclus pyrethrum alcoholic root extract on FSH, LH, testosterone and sperm count in diabetic male rats. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2019;21(2).

31.     Shah NA, Khan MR. Increase of glutathione, testosterone and antioxidant effects of Jurenia dolomiaea on CCl4 induced testicular toxicity in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):1-9.

32.     Jalili C, Salahshoor MR, Naseri A. Protective effect of Urtica dioica l against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice. Iran J Reprod Med. 2014;12(6):401-8.

33.     Memudu AE, Akinrinade ID, Ogundele OM. Retention of testicular integrity and testosterone levels upon ingestion of garlic cloves (Allium sativum) in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2015;5(4):319-23. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30351-8

34.     Hussein ZF. Study the Effect of Eruca Sativa Leaves Extract on Male Fertility in Albino Mice. J Al-Nahrain Univ Sci. 2013;16(1):143-6.

35.     Gamit KG, Vyas NY, Chudasama P, Raval MA. Aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential of Ayurveda formulation-Ashwagandhadi Lehya. J Biol Act Prod Nat. 2020;10(4):285-302.

36.     Vyas N, Gamit K, Raval M. Aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential of unsaponifiable fraction from seeds of Hygrophila spinosa t. Ander in rats. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2020;11(10):4902-9.

37.     Vyas N, Gamit K, Raval M, Patel SG. Isolation and chemical characterization of bioactive alkaloid from Argyreia speciosa Linn. having action on isolated rat Leydig cells. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2019;12(10):276-80.

38.     Obianime A, Uche F. The Phytochemical constituents and the effects of methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus leaves (kidney stone plant) on the hormonal parameters of Male guinea pigs. J Appl Sci Environ Manag. 2010;13(1).

39.     Azubuike NC, Okwuosa CN, Onwukwe OS, Onyemelukwe AO, Ikele I, Achukwu PU. Effects of Phyllanthus amarus on epididymal sperm characteristics, testosterone levels and histology of reproductive organs of male rats. Pharmacologyonline. 2018;3:57-67.

40.     Mares WAA, Najam WS. The effect of Ginger on semen parameters and serum FSH, LH & testosterone of infertile men. Tikrit Med J. 2012;18(2):322-9.

41.     Shukla KK, Mahdi AA, Ahmad MK, Shankhwar SN, Rajender S, Jaiswar SP. Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus-pituitary – gonadal axis. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(6):1934-40.

42.     Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Shukla KK, Islam N, Rajender S, Madhukar D, et al. Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(3):989-96.

43.     Ambiye VR, Langade D, Dongre S, Aptikar P, Kulkarni M, Dongre A. Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study. Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2013;2013:1-6.

44.     Raval M, Patel M, Gamit K, Patel K, Gupta SN. A Pilot Study on Evaluation of Standardized Ayurveda formulation Ashwagandhadi lehya as Aphrodisiac and in treatment of Oligospermia. Res J Pharm Tech. 2019;12(5):2383-90.

45.     Kolahdooz M, Nasri S, Modarres SZ, Kianbakht S, Huseini HF. Effects of Nigella sativa L. seed oil on abnormal semen quality in infertile men: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2014;21(6):901-5.

46.     Kolangi F, Shafi H, Memariani Z, Kamalinejad M, Shirafkan H, Bioos S, et al. Effect of Alpinia officinarum Hance rhizome extract on spermatogram factors in men with idiopathic infertility: A prospective double-blinded randomized clinical trial. Andrologia. 2018; 51(1):e13172.

47.     Khani B, Bidgoli SR, Moattar F, Hassani H. Effect of sesame on sperm quality of infertile men. J Res Med Sci. 2013;18(3):184-7.

48.     Shamsa A, Hosseinzadeh H, Molaei M. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on male erectile dysfunction: A pilot study. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(8):690-3.

49.     Choi YD, Park CW, Jang J, Kim SH, Jeon HY, Kim WG, et al. Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract on sexual function in men with erectile dysfunction: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study. Int J Impot Res. 2012;25(2):45-50.

50.     Russo A, Maisto E, Romis L, Celentano G. Use of a Natural Compound Made of Ecklonia bicyclis Seaweed, Tribulus terrestris, and Water-Soluble Chitosan Oligosaccharide, in Male Sexual Asthenia with Mild or Mild-Moderate Erectile Dysfunction and Serum Testosterone Levels at the Lower Limit of Norm. Health (Irvine Calif). 2016;8(15):1668-78.

51.     Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Principles of anatomy and physiology. John Wiley & Sons; 2008.

52.     Cooke P. Overview of Spermatogenesis and Steroidogenesis: John Wiley & Son.

QR code:

Short Link:
Views: 707

Downloads: 127
Quick Access

Pharmacophore
ISSN: 2229-5402

Copyright © 2024 Pharmacophore, All rights are reserved and for all open access contents, the Creative Commons licensing terms apply.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.