Mesenteric ischemia is rare, yet a fatal etiology of abdominal pain. It is common in the elderly population, specifically women more than men. Mesenteric ischemia manifests itself in a variety of presentations and has a range of causes, and always poses a diagnostic challenge. A high index of suspicion is needed, and early identification and intervention raise the survival rate of the patients. Because of its high accuracy performance, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has become the gold standard diagnostic modality. Options for intervention include endovascular procedures and open repair. We aimed to review the literature to promote the understanding and awareness of mesenteric ischemia. We reviewed the literature for mesenteric ischemic syndromes, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment options. Articles were chosen from the PubMed database, and selected studies were subjected to a thorough review. Mesenteric ischemia is a rare cause of abdominal pain, yet it is a potentially life-threatening condition. To diagnose and treat the condition early, a high index of suspicion is essential. Delay in diagnosis and treatment might result in a high rate of morbidity and mortality for the patient. Early bowel revascularization with an open or endovascular repair is critical for survival.