Pharmacophore an International Research Journal
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Open Access | Published: 2022 - Issue 3


Balasaheb Shantilal Kale1*, Mangesh Shankar Bhale2, Aditya Bajirao Bhagat1, Sanjay Appaji Khairnar1


  1. Department of Botany, S.V. K. T. Arts, Science & Commerce College, Deolali Camp, Nashik (M.S.) India.
  2. Department of Chemistry, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Jawhar, Palghar (M.S.) India.


The comprehend assess the pharmacognostic characteristics of an important ethnomedicinal plant, O. quadripartita Salz. ex Decne. The pharmacognostic evaluation was executein terms of taxonomic, macroscopic, microscopic, fluorescence analysis, and phytochemical analysis. The Osyaris members heartwood majorly used to make furniture and perfumes. The Osyris plant members are known for fragrance and volatile oil constituents. The microscopic features of stem bark were observed as cork, cortex, phloem fibers, phloem medullary rays, and scleridesin the transverse section (T.S.) and longitudinal section (L.S.). The microscopy of stem bark powder observed the presence of cortex cells, sieve tubes, calcium oxalate crystals, and lignified fibers. The initial screening of phytochemical constituents of stem bark crude plant extracts indicate the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins & phenolic in different polar and non-polar solvent systems such as petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water. Many pharmacognostic characters observed during the study, it’s help in the standardization of O. quadripartite.

Keywords: Osyris quadripartita, Authentification, Medicinal plant, Anatomy, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry


In the world about 3000 to 3150  plant species used as medicinal pourpouse form ancient times [1]. Various diferent types secondary metabolites recorded in plant kingdom such as alkaloids, tannins, phenols saponins flavonoids etc., this phytochemicls used agints  many diseases [2, 3].Crude drug discovery from natural medicinal plant resources these natural products very useful for to treatment of various disorders or diseases [4, 5]. O. quadripartita is a dry deciduous forest of family Santalaceae family and is commonly known as a wild tea plant and African sandalwood. Making the strong red-colored dye from the stem bark. The bark and heartwood of O. quadripartite can be easily adulterated with low-grade materials such as heartwood (African sandalwood) and strong red-colored dye [6, 7]. O. quadripartita comes under the least concern IUCN category [8]. The heartwood of this plant is faintly fragrant so, this plant is used as adulterating sandalwood in the commercial market. The stem bark is important for tanning the leather. The bark is used as a tonic, aromatic oils used in different products for manufacturing  expensive perfumes, rare soaps, quality lotions, and sweet-smelling candles [9, 10]. In Folk, Indian, and other traditional medicine systems, bark and leaves are used by tribal peoples this plant leaves uses as making herbal tea [11, 12]. It is used as curing various diseases such as antihelmintic, leishmaniases like leprosy diseases, abnormalities, kidney disease, forage, hygienic/perfuming, eye pain, cold, anaphylactic shock, epilepsy, circumcision wound, toothache, tonsillitis, abdominal pain, and urine problem [13, 14]. It’s also used for the treatment of cancer or tumor [15, 16], breast cancer [15, 17], anthrax and pasturolosis [18], Jaundice [19], wild edible fruit [20, 21], stomacache, malaria, cough, swelling and anti-corona virus disease (COVID-19) [22, 23], reduce inflammation and powerful emetic [24, 25], diarrhea [26], rabies [27], wound healing plants [28, 29], anti-ulcer activity [30, 31], mental problems [32], mastitis and poor motheringand antiviral activity [33]. This adulteration can be avoided by means of various evaluation variable such as microscopic as well as macroscopic evaluation. Macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical profiling evaluation techniques are important tools for the authentification of plant based crude drugs and the study of powdered drugs. Standardize of this plant part as per Indian Pharmacopoeia [34, 35]. It is significantly important characters such as morphological and anatomical characters, which is useful for drugs and their adulterants of commercial significance. The significant setup of the macroscopicaly, microscopically, and Pharmacognostic parameters of stem bark of the medicinal plant, will help in regularized, which can help quality control, identification, and purity of the sample [36].

Materials and Methods


The analytical grade chemical used for staning of the microscopic parts of the studied medicinal plant of E. Merck Limited India and Hi-Media Laboratories, Mumbai, India used for analysis of sample.


Botanical Parameter

Taxonomy & Morphology: Identification and classification of plants using different Floras and other available literature [37].


Collection Plant Materials

The fresh stem bark part of O. quadripartite medicinal plant, were collected from different regions of Junar taluka, Pune districts of Maharashtra (India). The plant materials were taxonomically identification, authenticated by BSI, Pune reference numberis BSIS000001612. The plant materials dried in shade until all the water get evaporated and plant part became well dried for grinding. After drying, the plant materials were crush using mechanical blender (Mixer) into fine powder. This dried sample make fine powder and use for phytochemical and Pharmacognostic analysis.


Pharmacognostic Studies- Microscopic Characters

Plant anatomy Microscopical characters were studied by hand section of the stem Osyris quadripartite specimen. Wherever sections stained with safranin, fastgreen and iodine to identify and detection of the living tissues, dead tissues and starch granuels [38, 39].


Microscopic Examination of Powder Sample by Using Maceration Technique

Study of stem bark elements such as vessels, cortex cells, sieve tubes etc. Use a maceration technique by Jeffery’s fluid [38, 39].


Sensory Evaluation

Various sensory variable done of the plant sample such as odour, taste, colour, size and shape.


Physico- Chemical Parameters- Extractives Values

Shade dried stem bark powder of O. quadripartite was subjected to constantly extraction with cold decoction for water only and hot extraction.


Ash Values

Water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash value and total ash value calculated by using plant sample Table 2.


Powder Microscopy

Take crude powder sample dissolved in water, then takes drop of this sample on slide, then put a coverslip and observed under light microscope.


Fluorescence Analysis

Take crude powder sample treated various chemicals then observe under visible light and U.V light Table 4 [40].


Method of Extraction

The powder of shade dried stem bark of O. quadripartita was subjected to continuous extraction with cold decoction for water only and maceration hot extraction used differnet organic solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone & methanol [40].


Phytochemicals Qualitative Tests

Followings phytochemicals qualitative tests used for analysis of O. quadripartitaplant crude extracts, there are test for carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, alkaloids, tannins glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins & steroids [40].


Results and Discussion

Sensory Evaluation 

The Sensory evaluation of the stem bark showed dark brown color on the upper surface and a light brown color on the lower surface. The shade dried stem bark was dark brown in color, with a bitter taste, unpleasant in odor, and coarse texture [38].

Macroscopic Evaluation

The morphological and taxonomy characters are much branched shrubs; young branches sharply triangular. Leaves subsessile, coriaceous, elliptic–oblong, apex mucronate. Flowers yellowish–green, axillary; male flowers in long pedunculate, shortly pedicellate, 5–10–flowered umbels, the peduncles of bisexual flowers carrying 1–3 flowers and elongating in fruit, perianth of 3 triangular lobes. The dried stem bark thickness was about 3.37 mm [37].

Microscopic Evaluation

A superficial and strongly thickened cork layer was observed in the species. The cortex cells are arranged in compact form. The pericycle is a part of ground tissue. Ground tissue's primary function is mechanical support. Pericyclic fiber is sclerenchyma in nature. The phloem is stratified into soft and hard portions. In which hard portions are nothing but primary phloem fibers, proto-phloem fibers, and secondary phloem fibers. The various cluster of crystalline structures deposition was present in the phloem cells Figure 1 [39, 41].



Figure 1. a and b) Stem bark anatomy of O. quadripartita

Bl= Barklayer, Cl=Cortex layer, Ph = phloem, Pm= Phloem medullary layer, Sc= Sclerides, Cr= Crystalliferous cells, Tnd= Tannin deposition, Sg= Starch granules