During the past few decades, there has been an increased scientific interest to prevent or amend the consequences of human exposure to the detrimental effects of sunlight ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Environmental UV radiation cause direct and indirect DNA damage, inducing mutations, and triggering associated diseases, such as skin cancer. Many photoprotection strategies are currently available, as this has become a core issue on public healthcare. In this context, many phytocomponents had shown photoprotective properties in different experimental models. Plants in the genus Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) are widely used in traditional medicine by ethnics from all over the world, and recent investigations support their genoprotective activity against UV radiation. In the present review, we summarize UV-related DNA photodamages and several strategies for its prevention such as the use of phytocomponents. We update the current knowledge concerning the photoprotective properties of several Phyllanthus species, putting emphasis on studies carried out in the last decade. We examine different molecular mechanisms described to date, from antioxidant activity to DNA repair modulation, and critically discuss the state of art and perspectives in the use of these plants as a new and promising strategy in photoprotection.