Cardiovascular diseases are becoming an increasing problem worldwide and hypercholesterolemia has been correlated for coronary heart diseases. Hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia is a condition, where the lipids present in blood viz. LDL, VLDL, triglycerides; HDL etc loose their normal levels resulting in imbalance of their levels. Long term increased levels of LDL, VLDL, triglycerides & decreased level of HDL results in hazardous effects such as myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke etc leading cause of mortality. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDS) carry a major health burden affecting humans. More than 80% of the world population is suffering from heart problems and if not treated earliest can be a major cause of death. Dyslipidemia is a highly predictive risk factor atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and cerebral vascular diseases and impose a great risk. Epidemiologic, angiographic and postmortem studies have documented a causal relationship between elevated serum cholesterol levels and the genesis of coronary heart disease. This article aims at reviewing the complete overview on dyslipidemia, its impact on the progression of cardiovascular diseases, its various forms, pharmacological interventions involved in its treatment and most recent investigations which are fruitful in the understanding of the disease and helpful to take preventive measures for cardiovascular diseases.