Introduction: Considering the importance of self-efficacy in patients' coping with the illness and having a successful life, the researchers decided to put in necessary plans to improve the level of self-efficacy in this population of patients and increase their self-confidence in the treatment plan. Method: The present study is an analytical descriptive study. It includes all patients over 18 years with a chronic renal illness, who have at least undergone of one year of treatment by hemodialysis and coverage of dialysis center at Shahid Motahhari Educational Hospital Under the supervision of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Sampling was done by census method. A 2-part questionnaire was used to collect information. After collecting the data, by using the SPSS21 software, the data were analyzed. Results: Self-efficacy was significantly higher in people over 60 years than those under 60 years. The self - efficacy score was higher in those without a history of renal disease (62.3 ± 11.5) than those with a history of renal disease (55.5 ± 11.8). There was no significant relationship between the self-efficacy score with sex, number of children, the cause of renal disease, economic status, occupational status, history of renal disease in the family, duration of the disease and duration of treatment with hemodialysis. Conclusion: Due to the low self-efficacy score in people under 60 years, single and with longer illness, we can conclude that it should be given more attention and therapeutic plans to these three groups to improve self-efficacy in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Jahrom.