The methanolic extract of leaf of Barleria montana Nees. was studied for isolation of phytoconstituents by thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and prepa-rative-thin layer chromatography (PLC), and characterized by spectroscopic techniques (Infrared spectroscopy,1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry). A rotenoid (Nicouline) and a flavonoid (Delphinidin 3, 5-diglucoside chloride) was isolated from the methanolic extract of leaf and identified with the help of preliminary phytochemical methods and spectroscopic data. Delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside chloride is found to be an anthocyanin glycoside (plant pigments of flavonoid class), abundantly found in many fruits and vegetables. They are the largest and most important group of water-soluble and vacuolar pigments in nature. They are chemically glycosylated polyhydroxy and polymethoxy derivatives of 2-phenylbenzopyrylium cation (anthocyanidin group). These compounds are of special interest because of their antioxidant activity and their potential use in the food industry as natural colorants and preserving agents. Nicouline is found to be a rotenoid, having broad spectrum insectiscidal and pestiscidal activities.