Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) and restless leg syndrome are common among patients with diabetes and might complicate each other’s deleterious consequences. The study assessed the rates of peripheral neuropathy and restless leg syndrome in diabetes mellitus. This study is a case-control carried out in king Fahad specialist hospital and primary healthcare centers in Tabuk city, Saudi Arabia during the period from September to December 2020, 132 diabetic patients were selected as cases, and 132 as controls. A structured, self-administered questionnaire based on the International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group consensus criteria and Michigan peripheral neuropathy assessment questionnaire were used to obtain information from the participants. Moreover, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for data analysis.
Out of 264 participants with a mean age (46 ± 14 years), males' dominance was obvious (73.5% and 75.0% in patients and the control group, respectively). Peripheral neuropathy was evident in 18.2% of patients and 2.3% of the control group, P-value < 0.001). Ninety-one of the participants in both of the study groups had restless leg syndrome, out of which 53.9% were from the diabetes mellitus group. No significant association was found between having restless leg syndrome with neither peripheral neuropathy nor diabetes mellitus, p values: 0.524, and 0.822, respectively. Peripheral neuropathy and restless leg syndrome were common among patients with diabetes, however, no significant association was found between restless leg syndrome with neither diabetes nor peripheral neuropathy; So, raising the awareness of the public and clinicians is highly needed.