Aromatic and medicinal plants have been regarded as foremost source of secondary metabolites (SMs). These SMs (less toxic and biodegradable) and their derivatives have been recognised as versatile source of biologically active drugs. The most of the drugs used in present medicinal system have direct or indirect relation with secondary metabolites. So, during last few decades the interest has increased in the study of phytochemical composition of aforementioned plants to evaluate their prospective in modern medicinal system. Amongst various plant families which have been known for their medicinal and therapeutic values, Labiatae (Mint) family (Genus Nepeta) remains quite important. Essential oils extracted from various parts of species of above said genus have been a vital source of terpenoid and oxygenated terpenoid hydrocarbons especially sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives. These compounds have been known for their inherent biological activities viz. sedative, diaphoretic, feberifuge, expectorant, diuretic, stomach tonic, antispasmodic, antipyretics, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, fungicidal, insecticidal, insect repellent and antidote against snakes and scorpion bites etc. The present communication constitutes a review on the chemical composition of essential oils (only key constituents) extracted from genus Nepeta along with the details of their specific area of collection, height, specific time in a year, stage of plant collection, method used for extraction and technique of analysis.